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Nevertheless, the logic is persuasive, that the same type of thinking which produced Listenwissenschaften could have been responsible for the geometric diagrams on cuneiform tablets.Mathematics plays a significant role in sundials, as explained by Irina Tupikova and Michael Soffel, which models several different types of sundials used in the ancient world, based on relative orientations in respect to the latitude of the sundial's position.Florentina Badalanova Geller's contribution ('The Poetics of Errors') follows closely upon that of Klaus Geus, since she deals with numerical values of alphabetic scripts (in this case Glagolitic vs.Cyrillic) and certain contradictions which arise from conflicting numbering systems associated with these alphabets.One of the issues is the value of, which is approximated as 3 for practical purposes and as 22/7 in set mathematical problems, which is roughly the situation found in Babylonian mathematics a millennium earlier, as well as later in the Babylonian Talmud.Such approximations should not be considered as erroneous but standard, and in fact had practical advantages, such as for tax assessors who could officially over-estimate the size of a taxable field area.
Florentina Badalanova Geller 207 ABOUT THE AUTHORS 219 2 CHAPTER 1 IRRTUM : FALLACIES IN ANCIENT SCIENCES Mark Geller & Klaus Geus Freie Universität Berlin The first series of the Dahlem Seminar for the History of Ancient Sciences, convened in the Autumn and Winter of 2010 at the Freie Universität Berlin, was devoted to the theme of fallacies (Irrtum) in antiquity.Moreover, since we have little in the way of mathematical textbooks from pre-classical antiquity, we often depend upon school exercises and mathematical riddles for knowledge of mathematical theory and how these theories may be applied to everyday situations.What we do not know, therefore, is who was actually responsible for mathematical theory and applications before we encounter Euclid s Elements and Archimedes work, as well as first actual mathematical textbook, probably the Elements of Hippocrates of Chius, c. Yet there is no specific profession associated with mathematics, as there is for medicine, magic, divination, liturgy or music.Having taken these factors into consideration, Klaus Geus reviews cases in which mathematical calculations appear within Greek historical writings, and he justifiably asks whether historians were able to cope with complex maths, since there is little reason to assume 3 any connection between historical writing and mathematical competence.
In fact, the Geus concludes that chosen examples from Herodotus, Thucydides, and Polybius all show that Greek historians were surprisingly capable of calculating large numbers, although not necessarily in the way modern mathematics would tackle such problems.
They are collected together on the tablet in a similar way as a specific sort of objects (represented by their names) appears in Mesopotamian lexical lists.